History See encyclopedia.
1937-became part of Dutch United Glass works.
Maastricht-1925 merged with de Sphinx. Maastricht/de Sphinx merged with Leerdam
de Bazel 1915
de Lorm 1917
Lebeau 1922-23 died in Dachau
Berlage 1923- founded UNICA STUDIOS
Copier 1923- founded SERICA glass
Frank Lloyd Wright
pre-1912 single mass produced table glass
1912 arrival of Cochius -> art glass
Heavy cut x-tal table glass
Berlage-yellow glass tableware
1922-23 Lebeau designed a large range, mottled, iridescent, cased, crackled & elongated forms.
1923 Copier-> thin glass colourless or tinted in ribbed form. Functionalist vases opaque with inner blown spirals. Thick walled vases with internal bubbles or seaweed effects. Irregularly facetted vases. Vases of Persian & Eastern styles & perfect sphere vases.
1930's minature stylised glass animals usually frosted, later ones clear are still produced today
UNICA-one off pieces
UNICA LEERDAM UNICA H37
1933-34 O 1-200
1935-36 O 200-300
1937-38 O 300-662
1939-47 P-Z- continues with doubles letters
Another factory at Pantin
after WWI joined with another factory at Pantin. See encylcopedia.
pre 1894 Coloured glass, marbled gold flecked, mottled, streaked, gilt enamelled, clear x-tal bottles in the shape of people, bldngs or boats
1894-patent application of coloured glass flowers, carved cornelian-multilayer beige-pink glass + cut flowers floral, fruit & enamelled leaves flowers & fruit-
2-3 layer cameo
1908-acid granulated, yellow, green, brown cameo cut, floral pattern + gilt.
Cameo etched poppies to red underlay.
Clear glass painted all over and marked LEG-
1920-1930 Floral cubist designs
Decorating shop opened in 1900's. Run by Paul Daum in 1920's. Main designer - Auguste Heiligenstein (1923-26)
Heiligenstein designed polychrome enamels on blanks supplied by Daum. Also press moulded glass. All enamel is signed. See encyclopedia.
Factory partly destroyed by fire in 1930. Closed during WWII & final shutdown 1947. See encyclopedia.
Max Ritter von Spaun (1879-1908)
Leopold Bauer (1872-1938)- Adolf Beckert (1884-1929)
Maria Kirschner (1851-1931)
Carl Lederle (1900's)
Glass thickish often with ground pontil, polished covering a large area of the base.
1890-1900 Imitated semi-precious stones- & introduced iridescence
1893 Columbia (iridescent with head of Columbus)
Pavonia:- heliotrope glass merging to amber,
Persica:- red merging to amber- Both with a lustre background with gold overlay & releif decorations.
Alpenrot & Alpengrun opaque red &/or yellowish green glass merging to sky blue decorated with guilding.
Kamelinrot, red & coloured glass with lustre + roccoco designs in relief
1898 deep gold, blue metallic lustre
1899 Papilon:- multiple closely clustered coloured iridescent dots, Ruby (Red), Candia (Gold), Cobalt (Blue)
Phenomenon:- iridescent with glass threds pulled at random across the surface
1901 Conch shapes in Papillon, Actglas:- clear & coral finish. Rusticana:-serpentine decoration. Pampas:- creamy, opaque & opal merging into a clear base with decorated plant forms in green glass.
1902 Calliope iridescent blue-green glass with applied flowers. Formosa:-blue glass threads over green background. Kreta:-free formed with applied ornaments & more Phenomenon.
1900-1914 Black & white glass- High quality iridescence(Maria Kirschner) overlaid with silver (Carl Lederle), cameo(rare), plain glass sometimes with pipped rim.
Bauer-60 designs, iridescent pure simple designs
Kirschner-270 designs, geometric, recherche, each designed for a particular flower
Beckert-multiple layer acid etched producing layered contoured glass-
Marks in pontil or cameo
pre WWI marked Bohemia & Austria
post WWI marked Czechoslovakia
Air trapped satin glass + gilding mkd PATENT 9159 on base called Octopus (1888) mistaken for English
Commisioned work from Taschner of Prague possibly others during 1920's
Palme-Konig mistaken for Loetz.
Unclear which attributions are correct despite apparent authority of many sources.
Bakalowits & Sohne, thin glass, lighter in weight, moulded base good quality unmarked
Quezal-pontils ground, moulded when metal mounts used
Vases identical to Loetz made by Adolf Zache in Goblanz using galvanised silver designs by Carl Lederle.-
Styles See encyclopedia.