Glass Guide
Leerdam (1765-present day)

History See encyclopedia.

1937-became part of Dutch United Glass works.

Maastricht-1925 merged with de Sphinx. Maastricht/de Sphinx merged with Leerdam


de Bazel 1915

de Lorm 1917

Lanooy 1919

Lebeau 1922-23 died in Dachau

Berlage 1923- founded UNICA STUDIOS

Copier 1923- founded SERICA glass

Meydam 1935

Heesen 1943

Frank Lloyd Wright


pre-1912 single mass produced table glass

1912 arrival of Cochius -> art glass

Heavy cut x-tal table glass

Berlage-yellow glass tableware

1922-23 Lebeau designed a large range, mottled, iridescent, cased, crackled & elongated forms.

1923 Copier-> thin glass colourless or tinted in ribbed form. Functionalist vases opaque with inner blown spirals. Thick walled vases with internal bubbles or seaweed effects. Irregularly facetted vases. Vases of Persian & Eastern styles & perfect sphere vases.

1930's minature stylised glass animals usually frosted, later ones clear are still produced today

UNICA-one off pieces

SERICA-limited editions


Often unsigned


1926-30 A-F

1930-32 G-N

1933-34 O 1-200

1935-36 O 200-300

1937-38 O 300-662

1939-47 P-Z- continues with doubles letters

Leerdam Maastricht



Factory marks
Designer Marks - A.D. Copier
Designers - others
Legras (1864@St Denis)


Another factory at Pantin

after WWI joined with another factory at Pantin. See encylcopedia.


pre 1894 Coloured glass, marbled gold flecked, mottled, streaked, gilt enamelled, clear x-tal bottles in the shape of people, bldngs or boats

1894-patent application of coloured glass flowers, carved cornelian-multilayer beige-pink glass + cut flowers floral, fruit & enamelled leaves flowers & fruit-

2-3 layer cameo

shallow cameo

1908-acid granulated, yellow, green, brown cameo cut, floral pattern + gilt.

Cameo etched poppies to red underlay.

Clear glass painted all over and marked LEG-

1919-Psuedo-cameo painted

1920-1930 Floral cubist designs

Leune (1900's-1930's)

Decorating shop opened in 1900's. Run by Paul Daum in 1920's. Main designer - Auguste Heiligenstein (1923-26)

Heiligenstein designed polychrome enamels on blanks supplied by Daum. Also press moulded glass. All enamel is signed. See encyclopedia.


Loetz-Witwe (1836-1947)


Factory partly destroyed by fire in 1930. Closed during WWII & final shutdown 1947. See encyclopedia.


Max Ritter von Spaun (1879-1908)

Leopold Bauer (1872-1938)- Adolf Beckert (1884-1929)

Maria Kirschner (1851-1931)

Kolomann Moser

Prof Powlony

Carl Lederle (1900's)


Glass thickish often with ground pontil, polished covering a large area of the base.

1890-1900 Imitated semi-precious stones- & introduced iridescence

1893 Columbia (iridescent with head of Columbus)

Pavonia:- heliotrope glass merging to amber,

Persica:- red merging to amber- Both with a lustre background with gold overlay & releif decorations.

Alpenrot & Alpengrun opaque red &/or yellowish green glass merging to sky blue decorated with guilding.

Kamelinrot, red & coloured glass with lustre + roccoco designs in relief

1898 deep gold, blue metallic lustre

1899 Papilon:- multiple closely clustered coloured iridescent dots, Ruby (Red), Candia (Gold), Cobalt (Blue)

Phenomenon:- iridescent with glass threds pulled at random across the surface

1901 Conch shapes in Papillon, Actglas:- clear & coral finish. Rusticana:-serpentine decoration. Pampas:- creamy, opaque & opal merging into a clear base with decorated plant forms in green glass.

1902 Calliope iridescent blue-green glass with applied flowers. Formosa:-blue glass threads over green background. Kreta:-free formed with applied ornaments & more Phenomenon.

1900-1914 Black & white glass- High quality iridescence(Maria Kirschner) overlaid with silver (Carl Lederle), cameo(rare), plain glass sometimes with pipped rim.

Bauer-60 designs, iridescent pure simple designs

Kirschner-270 designs, geometric, recherche, each designed for a particular flower

Beckert-multiple layer acid etched producing layered contoured glass-


Marks in pontil or cameo

pre WWI marked Bohemia & Austria

post WWI marked Czechoslovakia


Air trapped satin glass + gilding mkd PATENT 9159 on base called Octopus (1888) mistaken for English

Commisioned work from Taschner of Prague possibly others during 1920's

Palme-Konig mistaken for Loetz.

Unclear which attributions are correct despite apparent authority of many sources.

Bakalowits & Sohne, thin glass, lighter in weight, moulded base good quality unmarked

Quezal-pontils ground, moulded when metal mounts used

Vases identical to Loetz made by Adolf Zache in Goblanz using galvanised silver designs by Carl Lederle.-

LA Studios



Leerdam Etched Mark
Legras Enamel/Cameo mark

Styles See encyclopedia.

Gilt signature on cut and blown tableware. 19th century and onwards.
Loco Glass


Engraved on free blown glass