Codes 1842 - 67
A-1845 B-1858 C-1844 D-1852 E-1855 F-1847 G-1863 H-1843 I-1846 J-1854 K-1857 L-1856 M-1859 N-1864 O-1862 P-1851 Q-1866 R-1861 S-1849 T-1867 U-1848 V-1850 W-1865 X-1842 Y-1853 Z-1860
R for 1-19 Sept 1857, K for Dec 1860
Codes 1868 - 83
A-1871 C-1870 D-1878 E-1881 F-1873 H-1869 I-1872 J-1880 K-1883 L-1882 P-1877 S-1875 U-1874 V-1876 X-1868 Y-1879
Between 1-6 March 1878, W for year & G for month
Founded 1864 at Ehrenfeld, Koln. Closed down in 1931.
Gisela Falke von Lilienstein (Josef Hoffmann's pupil) & possibly F. Zitzmann(?)
Iridescent glass- Papillon in particular by K. Moser.
Winged glasses- particularly with a convoluted pattern in the form of a snake. Often in the form of a figure of 8. Copies of 16th & 17th century German glassware.
Tableware designed by Behrens.
See Weiner Werkstatte
Zitzmann designed for Ehrenfelder Glasshutten which is possibly Rheinische Glasshutten. Papillon was produced by Meyrs Neffe, Rheinische Glasshutten & Loetz. Indistinguishable in quality & origin.
The Richardson family have a complex history. B. Richardson began at Hawkes & Co. but left & joined up with W.H. Richardson taking over Wordsley Flint Glassworks (fnd 1720). Later W.H. & B. Richardson joined with Thomas Webb I (1804-69) to become Webb & Richardson. The partnership was dissolved in 1836, Webb left selling his interest in the White House Glassworks. The Wordsley works became W.H. , B. & J. Richardson. The works closed in 1852 despite success in the Great Exhibition, due to financial difficulties but reopened within a couple of years by Benjamin Richardson. He formed other partnerships; Hodgetts, Richardson & Pargetter (1836-69) Hodgetts, Richardson & Sons (1871-82) In 1887 his concerns were taken over by Benjamin Richardsons grandsons becoming H.G. Richardson & Sons. It was acquired by Thomas Webb & Sons in 1930 & the firm was operated from the Denis glassworks which finally closed in the late 1960's. The Richardson label was used until the 1970's. Benjamin Richardsons energy & experimentation combined to the partnerships he formed led to the rebirth of English glass. This has earned him the title of 'Father of the Glass trade'. The Richardsons had extensive influence, W.H. Richardson II manged the James Couper Glassworks. See encyclopedia.
John Northwood, Philip Pargeter, John Thomas Bott, Alphonse-Eugene Lechevrel, Joseph Locke
after 1825 - introduced a new style of long flutes of flat cut glass (pillar cutting)
1840's - Bohemian style triangular shaped decanters, clear apple green colour. Some with elements of the gothic style trefoils after Pugin. Transfer printed opaline glass often with classical themes. Enamel & gilt oriental scenes. Enamel & gilt rococo revival scrolls & flowers. Red, white & blue twist stems on wine glasses. Stems on wine glasses with externally applied glass threads wound-up the stem. Red Tazzas with gilding & dolphin stems. Green glasses in germanic style with applied gilding & conical foot. Pressed glass in imitation of cut glass
1845 - coloured, opaline, layered, enamelled & painted glass of pictoral subjects. Blue, white, cased glass in Bohemian style. Venetian style glass from white & pink canes.
1851 - Compressed air blown diamond glass. 1850's - Double twist of glass tubes forming handles on pitchers. Richardsons vitrified enamel colours used to produce small bowls.
1854 - Vermicular patterns, acid etched surface with twisting lines of polished glass
1857 - etched molded glass with machine threading. Hobnail patterns. Pearl satin glass-> glass was blown into a mould which produced hollows into the surface. This was coated with an outer layer of glass trapping air.
1861 - Northwood develops a device for transfering designs on copper plates to glass
1877 - John Northwood produced the first cameo glass copy of the Portland vase. Alphonse-Eugene Lechevrel produced a range of cameo vases of excellent quality. Left in 1900 & taught the Schneiders. Joseph Locke (Lechevrels pupil) produced outstanding glass. He worked in cameo producing another Portland vase + Cupid saling a cockleshell.
1878 - Mimiced Webbs Bronze glass originally developed by Webb while in partnership with Richardson. Iridesnce in green & brown. Venetian tazas.
1880's - Fancy glass, cranberry (ruby) sometimes with gilt, opalescent glass. Flower stands with opalescent flower holders. Cameo production in full swing. Trapped enamel decoration. Yellow glass with regular droplets of cream/white.
1887 - Hodgetts developed a device to apply glass threads to glass. Post 1887 H.G. Richardson produced iridescent glass
1890's - filigree effect of lattaccino white threads on translucent glass. Brilliant cut glass; Russian style, giving rise to closely spaced deep cutting & a prickly finish Iris threaded glass; green glass with pink trailings a la Tiffany & Quezal.
1900's - reproduction George III glass
1904-5 - Ceonix vases - yellow or pink marbled finish vases.
1905 - Firestone range, satin finish glass with applied festoons
1920's - Cameo fleur, cameo flowers against stippled or cut background (Marked Webb)
1930's - Millefiori paperweights & bottles some with a base ground flat.
JOHN NORTHWOOD II carved in cameo
Richardsons vitrified appears with a variety of marks often transfer printed sometimes with registration diamond. Gilt marks. Rich Cameo appears on cameo fleur range of acid ethched cameo vases in 1920's with Webb mark.
Glassmaking dates from prior to the 13thC however the invasion of the Tartar-Mongols stiffled development. Unification of Russian glassmaking began in the 16thC & by the 17thC glassmaking became widespread.
17th Century An early glassworks began at Dukhanino nr Moscow producing window glass, bottles, engraved, cut & facetted glass. Venetian glass was produced for a few years in the Kashiva district & also Izmailova now a suburb of Moscow.
Ismaivlova - Produced cut & engraved glass for the Czar & high Russian families. Towards the end of its period produced Bohemian style glass.
18th Century - St Petersburg became an important centre for glassmaking. The Yamburg & Zhabino glassworks produced engraved & cut glass, many celebrating the reign of Peter the great. By the mid 18thC the Dyat'kovo Crystal Works was founded. This was to become the largest factory in Russia & is still in operation today. During this period St Petersburg , Gus & Nikol'skoye works were also founded.
Lomonosov - Mikhail Lomonosov, a Russian scientist, founded a factory at Ust'Radista producing coloured mosaic & beads. Produced outstanding mosiacs. Costume jewelry & small turquoise blue bowls.
Count Fyodor Orlov - Orlov was one of five brothers who supported the overthrow of Catherine II's husband, Czar Peter III. She was placed on the thrown & rewarded the Orlov family. Orlov set-up a glassworks in Kaluga province. It produced glass in the English style & coloured glass which was polished & engraved. The factory closed in 1862.
19th - 20th Century Historicism dominated in the mid to late stages of the 19thC. Oriental, neo-gothic styles emerged. In 1830's high quality glass from the top factories was given the right to be stamped with the national emblem. By late 19thC & early 20thC Art Nouveau styles were adopted from Bohemia & France. Post revolution glass followed the Deco styles.
Nikol'stoye Crystal Works
Alexei Bakhemetiev founded a glassworks in Penza province.
1780's - outstanding clear & coloured glass. They were masters of gilded glass. Alexander Vershinin painting is of superbe quality. Stylised oak leaves used as a decorative theme on much of their glass
Early 1800's - produced English style crystal with some Russian/Bohemian variations.
Late 19thC - Early 20thC Wide range of colours & styles including marble & opal
Painted glass signed 'AR' associated with Alexander Vershinin. Early gilded glass inscription; 'Made in 1789 at Bakhmtiev's crystal factory in Penza province, in the district of Gorodischche, at the village of Nikol'skoye on the Vyrgan river
Gus & the Maltsov's
A very influential glassmaking dynasty owning many glassworks during the 18thC-19thC. They became considerably wealthy. Akim Maltsov founded arguably one of the most important factories in Russia in 1775 on the banks of the Gus river. The town of Gus'Khrustal'nyy grew up around the factory. It is the oldest glass house still in operation in Russia.
Early Styles - clear, painted & guiled
1857 - national emblem was placed in its products. All workers Russian. Historicism dominated folk styles
1860 - cut glass with swirling acanthus leaves
late 19thC -20thC Art Nouveau styles. Produced Galle style cameo in good quality late industrial style. Bohemian style Art Nouveau. V. similar to Loetz iridesence styles Moser style glass with guilding on clear glass Cased glass in Weiner Werkstatte style. Capable of working in any style incl Powell style Art Nouveau threading
Post revoution - Deco styles. Opal glass with Soviet emblems Naturalistic overlayed & etched glass
St Petersburg Glassworks (later Imperial)
This was the most influential Russian glassworks of the 18thC & 19thC. In 1792 the factory was renamed Imperial Glassworks. Later it merged to form Imperial China & Glassworks. See encyclopedia.
Early 1700s - blue & green glass, later wide range of colours introduced
18thC - Sophisticated engraving, rococo ornamentation, portraits, landscapes classical themes. Goblet styles typical of those in Silesia & Bohemia.
Late 18thC - engraving of allegorical figures depicting victories of Catherine II.
Early 19thC - Outstanding guilding
19thC - Moulded & cut glass produced throughout the period. Moulds made from wood, earthenware or metal.
early 19thC - many items set with chased bronze. Also v. fine enamelling.
post 1814 - following the Patriotic war against Napoleon patrotism was reflected in glass production. Some items given to veterans.
1830's - Neo-gothic styles, production from this time onward until 1900's oriental decoration was a strong theme.
1850 - Cased glass with two or three layers in Bohemian style v. good quality by Ivan Ivanov
1852 - Press moulded glass began production Also mosaics produced
1860 - Historicism, interest in reproducing early folk Russian styles. V. Hartmann produced enamels in the style of Russian in embroderies
late 19thC - clear glass with mottled colours reminiscent of Stourbridge production
1900's - Exceptional quality cameo. Influenced by Scandanavian production of Reijmyre & Kosta artists. Naturalistic themes particularly sea life. This was also seen in outstanding quality engraving of sea life some with Faberge mounts All in Art Nouveau style
1881-1894 Alexander III
1894-1917 Nicholas II (Cyrillic N)
History See encyclopedia.
History See encyclopedia.
History See encyclopedia.